Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Tribal & Rural Development may remain a Myth?

   Brief Background of the Case


 This is a live Case of gross negligence on the part of the AP State Administration for about 3 decades The Court of the Forest Settlement Officer, Khammam, issued Proc.No. D/445/1977 dated 20-2-1983, ordering that


a)    Patta lands to the extent of 49.19 acres belonging to ten Pattedars, in Sy.Nos. 373 to 379 and 381 to 386 may be cancelled and included in proposed Forest Block Lachapur Extn.I. and


b)    In lieu of the above Patta lands, an area of Ac.62.00 may be given from Sy.No 570/1 of Patwarigudem village, Dammapeta Mandal, adjacent to Dammapeta to Paloncha PWD Road, after phodi and entered in the Revenue Records in the name of 10 Pattedars or their legal heirs.


 It is regrettable that the allotted lands are not handed over to the Tribal Pattedars or their legal heirs, who were deprived of their agriculture lands- livelihood--in the notified Scheduled Area, even after 28 years have passed, since the Order was issued.


Having received no response from Tahasildar (MRO) Dammapeta, the District Collector, Khammam and PO ITDA Bhadrachalam were approached in February 2010 As there was no response, even after reminders, from them, the matter was taken up with Special Chief Secretary, Department of Social Welfare and the Commissioner of Tribal Welfare, who were kind enough to follow it up with the District Collector & PO ITDA .


Finally the present PO ITDA(B) requested the Tahasildar, Dammapeta to enquire into the matter, take necessary action and submit report of compliance immediately , treating the matter as most urgent, vide his Note dated 26-07-2011 addressed to the Tahasildar copy endorsed to Revenue Divisional Officer (RDO)  Palavancha, while the  District Collector Khammam remained a passive spectator all this time, It is to be seen, if and when the Tahasildar responds ?


Moral of the Story


 Having started with the Tahasildar and landed back with him, after going through various channels for about two years, I got the message "Loud & Clear" that the Delivery System in Revenue matters, at the Grass Roots (Mandal) level, rests with Tahasildar alone and none else. He can either deprive or bestow the Right to Property for a price unchallenged, particularly in the districts where Land Survey records are not maintained properly.  All others at Division and District Levels appear to be superfluous and wasteful, as they do not seem to monitor & govern that the Delivery Mechanism at the Mandal level functions smoothly & satisfactorily. 


 Unfortunately, the delivery systems, be it Revenue, Rural Development ,Panchayat , Tribal Development, Forest, Health, Education, Irrigation, Power, Roads etc Departments, at the Mandal level have become the channels for draining out the public funds, meant for well intended  projects like REGS, LWE, Rural Water Supply etc The District Collector , who is supposed to supervise & govern the functioning and monitor the performance of about more than 50 activities /departments/committees , does not seem  to have full grasp of   some of them, leave alone controlling and governing them.




The painful conclusion is that the Delivery Systems at the Grass Roots level are indifferent/ insensitive, unresponsive and ineffective. Secondly there is no Good Governance, particularly at the District Level--- Responsive, Transparent, Accountable, Effective & Efficient, and Rule of Law -- And thirdly, there are no independent Regulating /Implementing/Monitoring  Agencies which can act and function without the interference of NETA/BABU nexus. Without these, Jan Lokpal Bill or No Bill, the Corruption will spread like cancer, harming the well being of the Nation.



Why We do Not Need Nuclear Power ?


5Nays- Why We DO NOT Need Nuclear Power?

1. Not CO2 Free: Although Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) itself releases no
     carbon dioxide, the production of nuclear electricity, depends upon a vast complex
     and hidden industrial infrastructure (Nuclear Fuel Cycle), the intensive user of
     Fossil Fuel -the kind of energy the Nuclear Power is touted as replacing -with the
     concurrent production of Carbon Dioxide.         

2. Not Sustainable: At the current consumption rate of Uranium, the known
    & extractable Uranium deposits may not last for more than 50 to 60 years. Therefore
    it is not Sustainable Source of Energy.

3. Not Cheap: Nuclear Power is not only a high-risk technology in terms of
    safety, but also with respect to financial investment.   The costs for decommissioning
    of NPP are very high & the cost of isolating radioactive byproducts /wastes from the
    biosphere & safeguarding them for hundreds of thousands of years, which defy
    human imagination, cannot even be estimated. Nuclear Power is one of the most
    expensive ways of generating electricity

4. Not Safe: If the Nuclear Power is safe and entails as little risk as the Nuclear
    Industry claims, the insurance premium does not need to be particularly high.  Why
    are the American Nuclear Power Plant Vendors demanding Nuclear-Accident
    Immunity, a pre-condition for their entry in the Indian Civil Nuclear Sector?


5. Not Easy to dispose Nuclear Waste: Each 1000 MW NPP
    is estimated to generate 1500 Tons of extremely potent Radio Active Waste in its
    operational life of 50 years, not to talk of waste generated on decommissioning. The
    Nuclear Industry is yet to find how safely transport and store this deadly material for
    periods of time –almost beyond our comprehension – 2, 40,000 years. Electricity is
    but the fleeting byproduct of Nuclear Power. The actual product is forever deadly
    Radio Active Waste.


                      No Nuclear Power. Thank You!

Saturday, August 27, 2011

ORR Growth Corridor- Draft Master Plan 2031- G.O.111


The Outer Ring Road (ORR) was aligned along the bund of Himayat Sagar and cutting across the prohibited catchment area of Osman Sagar between Vattinagulapalli and Khanapur villages of Rajendranagar Mandal of RR District in supersession of the provisions of G.O.111 and in disregard to Supreme Court directive dated 1 st December 2000. This is likely to result in acidification of the reservoirs due to air pollution from heavy vehicular traffic on ORR. The necessary measures need to be initiated and implemented, for developing a massive Barrier of Green-Belt on water front side of the ORR. to prevent acidification of the drinking water sources.


Development Activities in Prohibited Catchment Area


 It is observed that considerable development activities are taking place around Vattinagulapalli village and towards Khanapur village, both of which are in the prohibited catchment area. This is happening in spite of MA&UD, Memo No.14046/11/2007 dated 12-10-2007, directing HUDA and the District Collector of Ranga Reddy, to ensure that no construction or development comes in prohibited catchment area of the Water Bodies. It also directs .to keep a strict vigil and take stringent action against the violators of the provisions of G.O.111, as per the law.  


Developments Down Stream


 The State Government, with a view to prevent any possible direct pollution into Osman and Himayat Sagar lakes, the main drinking water sources for Hyderabad, issued  Memo N0.261/1/2006 dated 16-07-2007 specifying the regulation measures, applicable to the Down Stream areas of the two water bodies. Some of them are:


a)No development up to 500 Mtrs  from the Bund/FTL in the Down Stream and declared 
    as Prohibited Zone


b) Beyond 500 Mtrs and up to 1000 Mtrs ( I KM ) in the Down Stream , only low rise
    Residential development (G+2 floors) will be allowed


c) Beyond 1000 Mtrs distance in the Down Stream, all developments such as
     Residential, Commercial, I.T Units, Hotels, Public & Semi Public developments,
     except the specified 68 industries are permitted.


d) HMDA is designated as the Nodal Agency to enforce these Regulations


The Gandipet is one of the villages within 500 Mtrs, down stream and should be treated as prohibited zone as per the Memo dated 16-7-2007. But unfortunately, considerable development /commercial activities are reported to be taking place around there with or without the knowledge/consent of the authorities concerned. This needs to be prevented before it is too late.


Activities in ORR Growth Corridor


The G.O.Ms.No No 470 dated 09-07-2008 was issued notifying Special Development Regulations for 1 Km Belt on either side of the entire stretch of 162 Kms Outer Ring Road (ORR) – Hyderabad Outer Ring Road Growth Corridor (ORR-GC). These Regulations clearly sate that the restrictions imposed under the G.O.111, are applicable for the areas covered both under G.O.111& ORR-GC, regarding Building and Development activities. But unfortunately they are neither being observed in ORR-GC, nor being enforced by the concerned agencies


Draft Master Plan 2031


The draft Master Plan 2031 notified by HMDA, clearly states that the developments should take place in the area marked Bio-Conservation Zone only  in accordance with restrictions imposed under G.O.111. But unfortunately, more than 25% of the area marked Bio- Conservation Zone in the Draft Master Plan appears to have already been converted for other purposes either legally or illegally. This is being highlighted and brought to the notice of the authorities concerned, including Hon'ble Chief Ministers from time to time for about a decade. By the time, the draft Master Plan is finalized, there may be not be much of the area marked Bio-Conservation Zone, left.




 The painful and unpleasant conclusion is that the State Administration seems to have lost its credibility in the eyes of the Public, as it does not seem to be serious to implement the G.Os /Regulations / Rules issued. Firstly, the Delivery System at the grass roots level is insensitive, unresponsive and ineffective. Secondly, there is no Good Governance from Top to Bottom. And Thirdly, there are no independent Monitoring/ Regulating /Implementing Agencies, which can act and function without the interference of NETA/BABU nexus. Without these, Jan Lokpal Bill or No Bill, the Corruption will spread like cancer, harming the well being of the Nation


Tuesday, August 23, 2011

Stop Dumping into Musi before Start Cleaning!

About Musi River

The Musi River is a Land mark, passing through Hyderabad Metropolitan Area for a stretch of about 20 Kms from Tippu Sultan Bridge -Purana Pool – Chaderghat- Nagoal and dividing the City into North and South Parts. The storm waters from both the parts drain into Musi River as it provides a natural depression. 

Naturally, the phenomenal growth of Hyderabad urban area during the last half a century, with its overall environmental impact/degradation, contributed to the present sad state of pollution/degradation of the Musi River.

As there are no inflows into Musi River, down stream of Osman and Himayat Sagars,  the inflows are mainly confined to the discharges from both sides of the urban area. The storm waters that drain during monsoon period and the untreated or undertreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents during the rest of the year,. As a result for most part of the year Musi looks like a Drain than a River. 

 CAG & EPTRI Reports

The CAG Report, which reviewed the activities relating to the control of water pollution during 1994-2000, was placed before the State Assembly on 31-3-2001. The report stated that ground water in areas along Musi River contained high levels of pollution and endangered public health. The water samples collected from down Stream of Musi River, are reported to have shown high levels of toxic heavy metals like, Lead, Chromium, Mercury and Arsenic in ground as well as surface waters.

The State of Environment Report for Hyderabad published by EPTRI in 1996,  estimated that about 350 MT of Total Dissolved Solids(TDS) load is being pumped into Musi River every day, along with untreated & under treated industrial effluents being let out into Musi River. The other point is the residues of toxic Heavy Metals and POPs, which are not being tracked, are finding their way along with the effluents/sewage. 


Nature & Sources of Pollution

The most threatening problem of Musi River pollution is from water soluble, non-volatile, fairly reactive and environmentally persistent Organic Halogen Compounds (POPs). Some of these exhibit properties of high toxicity, bioaccumulation or carcinogenicity. These have applications as chemical intermediates in manufacture of pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals etc.


As there does not seem to be an effective treatment to remove these toxic pollutants, the Supreme Court directed Bulk Drug Industries for segregation of waste stream containing these non-degradable pollutants at the very source of their generation, instead of sending it to Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) or discharging into drains or sewers. But unfortunately this very aspect is being ignored both by the Bulk Drug Industry and APPCB and trying to dilute & shift the pollution & accountability.


 The unorganized industrial units engaged in Galvanizing, Electroplating, Leather Tanning etc are the main sources of toxic heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chrome etc found in large quantities in the sludge of Husain Sagar & Amberpet STP and in Musi River. This is mainly because of unchecked discharge of untreated effluents into drains & sewers.


The other sources of chemical contaminants are the Hospitals, Clinical Laboratories, Chemical/Diagnostic Laboratories, Photo Studios etc spread over the city. They invariably discharge/drain their untreated and undertreated chemical residues into Municipal Sewers and the drains finding their way to STPs and the Musi River 


CETP Pattancheru (PETL) & CETP Jeedimetla (JETL)  


The seriousness of the pollution problem from the bulk drug industries at Pattancheru was highlighted in 2007, by an environmental scientist of Sweden, when he found at CETP, Pattancheru (PETL) the discharge load of Ciprofloxacin, corresponding to approx 45 kg of active ingredient per day. It is likely to raise antibiotic bacterial resistance in the world, making it a Global Concern.   


 In addition to Ciprofloxacin, the supposedly treated effluents of PETL had 21 different active pharmaceutical ingredients, used in generics for treatment of hypertension, heart disease, chronic liver ailments, depression, gonorrhea, ulcers and other ailments. It was reported that 11 of the drugs detected were at the highest levels of pharmaceuticals ever detected in the environment.


The so called treated effluents of PETL and JETL,  are being discharged into Municipal Sewers through 18 Km Pipeline and Duplicate K-S Main respectively, finding their way to Amberpet STP and Musi River. If the outlet standards, applicable for discharge into inland surface waters, are being met by PETL & JETL, why not they be utilized by the member industrial units, instead of sending, all the way, to Amberpet STP ?.


Cleaning of Musi River


The first isolated effort for cleaning Musi River was made in 1990s, by launching ill-conceived "Nandanavanam" project covering about 4 Km stretch of the River,  reducing the  width as a water way.  In August 2000, the flash floods of Musi River washed away the works undertaken at considerable cost, under Nandanavanam project.


The, ""Save Musi River" Project was undertaken in 2005-06, covering the stretch of around 20 Kms of the River in HUDA limits at an estimated cost of Rs 355 Crores as National River Conservation Project Phase I , under National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD)  . This project envisaged setting up of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) at Nagol, Nallacheruvu, Attapur apart from expanding and augmenting the capacity of STP at Amberpet. It is reported that under Phase II of the project, NRCD has cleared setting up of 10 more STPs with a capacity of 600 MLD at an estimated cost of Rs 750 Crores.

Limitations of STPs

As STPs can not remove TDS Load, except diluting the concentration levels.  the fact of letting out about 350 tons of TDS containing toxic and non-degradable substances into Musi every day, is going to be continued. How do the STPs help to prevent the load of 11 most abundant active pharmaceutical substances & Ciprofloxacin discharged from PETL and accumulating down stream of Musi, river?  As the waterborne drugs promote antibiotic-resistant germs, especially when they are mixed with bacteria in human sewage, how do the STPs get over the problem?

Abatement of Total Pollution of Musi River?

The bulk of pollution of Musi is attributable to non-degradable and non-treatable inorganic salts in the farm of TDS, heavy metals, traces of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants. These are being discharged into Musi either directly or by letting them into domestic sewers. As the STPs can neither degrade nor remove the above toxic pollutants and substances, the well intentioned purpose of cleaning up of Musi River may not be served by setting up of STPs, if the pollutants are continued to be discharged into municipal sewers.


 It is to be seen, how abatement of total pollution of Musi River is going to be achieved under NRCD Phase-II (Musi Revitalization Project), by just building additional STPs, laying new Sewer Lines etc at considerable expenditure, while continuing to permit untreated \ under treated toxic  and non-degradable  effluents into the Sewer Lines ?




    If Musi River and the water bodies around Hyderabad are to be protected, the industries, mainly the bulk drug industries, are to be disciplined to segregate and treat the effluents at the very source of their generation, The other sources of pollutants should not be permitted to drain their untreated effluents into municipal sewers by regular monitoring and levying heavy penalties. The decentralized, STPs of 5 to 10 MLD capacity be set up to treat domestic sewage free from industrial effluents and other toxic metals/chemicals, so that the treated sewage can be reused by the local communities for non – domestic use.

Friday, August 19, 2011

G.O.111- Beware of Layouts in Vattinagulapalli!



The State Government of AP, realizing the significance and importance of providing safe drinking water for the progress and well being of the citizens of Hyderabad, issued G.O.Ms.No. 111 M.A dated 08-03-1996, for protecting Himayat Sagar and Osman Sagar, the main sources of drinking water supply to Hyderabad & Secunderabad. The salient features of the G.O. are


*To prohibit polluting Industries, Major Hotels, Residential Colonies or other establishments that generate pollution, in the catchment of the   lakes up to 10 KMs from Full Tank Level (FTL) of the lakes. - Para 3 (i )


*Residential developments in residential use zone may be permitted with 60% of  the total area kept as open spaces and roads in all layouts  in the villages of prohibited catchment area- Para 3 (i) (a)


*To restrict the FSI to 1: 0.5 in the catchment area. This measure will ensure that 90 % of the area remains under agriculture, as is the practice now and ensure protection of the lakes- Para 3 (i) (c) 


 *The land use of about 90 % of the area is classified as recreational and conservation use in the Master Plan. The HUDA should take action for classification of this 90% of the area as Agriculture, which is inclusive of horticulture and floriculture –Para 3 (i) (b)

Accordingly HMDA classified this area as bio-conservation zone


 Supreme Court Judgment


The Supreme Court in its land-mark Judgment dated 01-12-2000 observed that having laid down the policy prohibiting certain activities within the catchment of the reservoirs, the government could not pass orders of exemption having dangerous potential, unmindful of the fate of Lakhs of citizens of the Twin Cities, to whom drinking water is supplied from these lakes. Also observed that such an order of exemption carelessly passed, ignoring the "Precautionary Principle" could be catastrophic.


Directives of State Agencies


In accordance with the directions of AP High Court in W.P. 9386/07, the Dept of MA&UD, issued Memo No.14046/11/2007 dated 12-10-2007 directing HUDA and the District Collectors, of Ranga Reddy and Mahaboobnagar, to ensure that no construction or development comes in prohibited catchment area of the Water Bodies, in violation of the provisions of G.O.111 and .to keep a strict vigil and take stringent action against the violators as per the law.


The advertisement issued by HUDA and published on 4-12-2007, cautioning against development of layouts in prohibited catchment area of Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar is also relevant


 The other aspect is that sanctioning of layouts with 60% of layout area as open spaces & roads, F.S.I. of 1:0.5 etc in the prohibited area, in violation of 90 % of the total area of the prohibited catchment for agriculture use, is nothing but violation of the provisions of G.O.111.




Vattinagulapalli village, in Rajendranagar Mandal of Ranga Reddy District, is one of the 84 villages falling within 10 Kms Catchment Area of Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar

as per Annexure-I of G.O.111.


If you are looking for a Plot or a House in the Layouts outside ORR towards Himayat Sagar & Osman Sagar , please check that the Layout is approved by HUDA /HMDA and it is not  in Bioconservation Zone notified by HUDA / HMDA and conforms to restrictions stipulated in G.O.111



Thursday, August 18, 2011

Bulk Drug Industries-Violation of Restrictions

Ban on Water Polluting Industries


 The AP Pollution Control Board (APPCB), considering the pollution problems, the local issues, need to protect the Drinking Water Sources and Water for Agriculture, issued Notification of 14-10-1996, restricting the establishment /expansion of water polluting Industries in four Districts.


 This notification is applicable to all Bulk Drugs, Pesticides (Tech), Dyes & Dye Intermediate manufacturing Industries and all types of Water Polluting industries, in all Industrial Estates and Industrial Development Areas and within one KM radius of Industrial areas, in Medak, Ranga Reddy, Mahaboobnagar and Nallagonda districts for two years from 01-01-97.


Subsequently, the AP Govt. issued G.O.Ms.No 62 of 28-04-1999 making the ban notification of 14.10.1996, issued by the APPCB permanent, in accordance with the Hon'ble Supreme Court interim orders dated. 12.05.1998 in W.P.N0.1056/90,


Violation of Ban Order


 But unfortunately the APPCB seemed to have remained a helpless onlooker, while th the Bulk Drug industries of international repute   violated the ban order, particularly around Hyderabad in Medak and R.R. Districts  during the last one and half decades


 It is reported that many of the Bulk Drug Industries around Hyderabad are producing the Bulk Drugs far in excess of Types,/ Numbers and Quantities permitted  by APPCB prior to 01-01-1997 the effective date of the Ban., Some of them are also reported to have outsourced the production of Bulk Drug Intermediates , which do not seem to require Environmental Clearance of MOEF, GOI 


Non Compliance – High-Profit Business


 The non-compliance of Pollution Control Rules & Regulations, particularly for the Bulk Drug Units, has become a high-profit business, because of laxity/collusion on the part of the regulating agencies and the political interference. As a result, the Indian Bulk Drug products have become very competitive in the international markets, as the costs of treating the pollutants are avoided through externalizing pollution by passing it on to the society.


Seriousness of Pollution Problem


The seriousness of the pollution problem from the bulk drug industries at Pattancheru near Hyderabad was highlighted in 2007, by  an environmental scientist of Sweden ,when  he found at PETL the discharge load of Ciprofloxacin, corresponding to approx 45 kg of active ingredient per day. It is likely to raise antibiotic bacterial resistance in the world, making it a Global Concern.   


 In addition to Ciprofloxacin, the supposedly treated effluents of PETL had 21 different active pharmaceutical ingredients, used in generics for treatment of hypertension, heart disease, chronic liver ailments, depression, gonorrhea, ulcers and other ailments. It was reported that half of the drugs detected were at the highest levels of pharmaceuticals ever detected in the environment.


 In economical terms, if the equivalent amount of the 11 most abundant active substances released by PETL during 24 hrs were to be purchased as final products in a Swedish pharmacy, they would cost over 100,000 British Pounds.


The complaints by the local communities regarding the discharge of untreated and undertreated effluents from PETL and JETL into local water bodies had been cleverly overcome by transferring the so called treated effluents of these CETPS through pipelines into municipal sewers. They ultimately find their way through Amberpet STP into Musi River which is already heavily polluted


What is the Way Out?


The present production capacities of the Bulk Drug units of about half a dozen Pharmaceutical Companies of international repute in Medak, Ranga Reddy , Nallagonda and Mahaboobnagar districts need to be verified with capacities approved as on 01-01-1997,the effective date of Ban, restring the expansion / establishment  of new capacities


 The thorough scrutiny of data regarding purchase / consumption of the input Raw Materials & Solvents, the use of utilities Water, Fuel,& Power, the  payments of Water Cess,& Central Excise Duty and  the Exports & Sales in respect of these units over the last 15 years, would reveal the hard facts and the culprits, if the authorities concerned mean business without fear or favour ?




The Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) Regulations enforced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). provide for systems that assure proper design, monitoring, and control of manufacturing processes and facilities

If a bulk-drug company is not complying with cGMP regulations, any drug it makes is considered "adulterated" under the law.  This kind of adulteration means that the drug was not manufactured under conditions that comply with cGMP.  It does not mean that there is necessarily something wrong with the drug.

 Even if the drugs are not defective, FDA can bring a seizure or injunction case in court to address cGMP violations.   When FDA brings an injunction case, FDA asks the court to order a company to stop violating cGMPs.  Both seizure and injunction cases often lead to court orders that require companies to take many steps to correct cGMP violations. The FDA can also bring criminal cases because of cGMP violations, seeking fines and jail time.

 Is the US, FDA not aware of cGMP violations. by these select Indian Bulk Drug manufacturing Companies, the largest suppliers of Bulk Drugs to USA ?


These Bulk Drug Industries contaminating the Air, the Water and the Soil, in violation of Rules and Regulations, are committing Environmental Crimes that often damage the community more seriously than the Criminal Offence of the conventional kind..


The Bulk Drug Industries, setting aside their "Corporate Social Responsibility" are willing to take the risk to the bitter end, until it is no longer possible to conceal & fool around and it economically hurts. Therefore, the facts of the Crime have to be revealed, the wounds inflicted have to be shown, and the culprits have to be named and penalized, so that it hurts them economically and socially.


 If they cannot be disciplined even then, they will have to be penalized like the hard core criminals Can we expect this to happen in our present system of Governance?


Thursday, August 11, 2011

Hyderabad Metro Rail Project - Necessary Evil?

The Urban Public Transport is a critical component of urban infrastructure and the lifeline of the city, which needs to be developed well ahead of the development of the Planned City. But unfortunately, the planners of Hyderabad and the State Administration had been debating about LRTS, MMTS, MRTS, BRTS etc, while the city population exploded and the concrete jungle emerged in the name of development over the last two decades or so. The present Hyderabad City Traffic problem is nothing but the making of the State Administration, due to its monumental failure.

Road Widening & Flyovers No Answer

Instead of giving priority for energy efficient public transport system, the administration concentrated on widening roads without footpaths, building flyovers etc making room for additional motor vehicles on already choked roads. This made things worse, by adding to the alarming levels of air and noise pollution increase, the road fatalities, travel delays and loss of productivity. It is like trying to cure obesity by loosening the belt.

Viable Alternatives

The important factors to be considered are a) altering society's total use of transportation  b) altering the volume of transportation services produced by each unit of fuel utilized  c) altering the carbon content of fuel used.


 1)The cost effective and sustainable solution to Hyderabad Traffic problems, is the adoption of "Avoidance Mode" (suppression of demand), instead of continuing with the Supply Mode only as at present - namely widening  Roads, building  Flyovers etc..This can be achieved by planning new townships which are self supporting and by rearranging/decentralizing the facilities in the core city, to minimize intra-city commuting as much as possible and alter the traffic pattern altogether in the next 10 years..

2)The other solution is energy efficient (Rail based) Public Transport System,  less capital intensive, affordable, safe, fast, reliable and should blend with the character and heritage of the Hyderabad City without defacing them and becoming an eye-sore. The proposed MRTS does not satisfy all the above and may become a necessary evil.

3)The viable, quick and least expensive alternative appears to be to make use of the exiting MMTS, suitably strengthening and augmenting by extending lines, laying new lines  ,setting up more stations and by laying third line from Secunderabad to Nampally and on other radial lines as required, with feeder bus routes connecting the interior areas, having a combined ticket for Rail & Bus etc. "Hyderabad Metropolitan Transport Authority" to manage MMTS network integrated with Road Transport system in the entire area covered by HMDA  

 The combination of solutions at 1 & 3 are cost effective and sustainable. However, a wider public consultation and debate are required on the subject.


The development/infrastructure, based on entirely Road-Transportation, making our country dependent on AUTO and OIL Lobby, of USA, is not sustainable and not suitable to Indian Economy.